An Evolutionary Game Theory-Based Approach to Cooperation in VANETs Under Different Network Conditions

Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) belong to a class of complex networks due to constant addition and deletion of nodes. Stimulating cooperation in these networks is a research challenge due to this uncertainty. The reason is that the node behavior is highly influenced by the neighborhood structure. Game theory has been significantly used to model ad hoc networks and optimize cooperation. However, in vehicular interactions, apart from the individual node behavior, networking properties play a vital role in the evolution of cooperation.

This paper presents a public goods game (PGG) group interaction model for vehicular networks. We analyze how networking properties can impact the diffusion of cooperation. Simulation results show that higher network connectivity induces higher clustering in the network. This influences the probability of nodes receiving common packets from the neighborhood. The average path length proportional to clustering impacts the benefit sharing in the neighborhood. Results show that cooperation diffusion in these networks cannot be forced but evolves with different networking conditions.